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A. Checking the barometer, Elaine predicted good weather.

Or

B. Predicting good weather after Elaine checked the barometer.

I think A is correct and B is wrong because the gerund "predicting" needs to be a "ed" suffix.

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A. Checking the barometer, Elaine predicted good weather.

Sentence A is correct.

B. Predicting good weather after Elaine checked the barometer.

This is grammatically wrong. Here, the given structure is "N + after + S + V + O". There's a lonely noun before the "after" without any friend, which is pretty sad :'( . You should have a full clause before "after" in this case.

You can correct sentence B by changing it a bit:

Elaine predicted good weather after she checked the barometer.
Prediction of good weather came after Elaine checked the barometer.
As Elaine checked the barometer, she predicted good weather.

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