I have learned that article is not used before Temple, Hospital, Jail, or Zoo if one visits it for the purpose it is.
I saw one sentence
Visitors to the zoo are amused by monkey playing in the cages.
Why "the" is used here?
You should not omit "the" when talking about a particular zoo.
"The" is sometimes omitted when we are speaking of the "social institution" (a collection of people) and not "the physical building".
You have to go to school until you are 18
We go to church on Sunday.
If you are talking about a particular school then use "the"
I go to the school in the centre of town.
The same is true of other social institutions such as "jail" or "church". Generally the word "temple" and "zoo" refer to particular buildings or places, and not to social institutions (we use "church" to mean a collection of people or to a building, but temple always refers to a particular building, they are not used the same way). So you should normally use "the"
We go to the temple on New Year's day.
On Saturday we will go to the zoo.
There seems to be a degree of universality implied when you omit the "the", as in, it is accepted that "everyone does this" (or at least that the possibility applies to everyone). There also seems to be an implicit suggestion of what you will be doing there, which is again, universal (to a degree).
"Zoo", I feel, definitely doesn't belong in your list.