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Is this sentence correct?

The only countries from South America that I know are Mexico, Brazil and Argentina.

Is not 'the only' meant for just only only one?

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    Your sentence is grammatically correct but it is not geographically correct – Mexico is not part of South America.
    – J.R.
    Nov 10 '19 at 23:14
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This is totally normal usage - because 'countries' is (massively) plural, it is obvious to a native speaker that a short list still fits the definition of 'only a few'.

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Your example is fine. It is perfectly good idiomatic English to use "the only" to list one or more of a larger set. So your sentence is correct although it may be better to change the preposition:

The only countries in South America that I know are Mexico, Brazil and Argentina.

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