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A book defines sonnet as:

A lyric poem consisting of a single stanza of fourteen iambic pentameter lines...

But if I rewrite it as:

A lyric poem that consists of a single stanza of fourteen iambic pentameter lines...

The first definition is using a participial phrase.

My question is that whether they are interchangeable or not?

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My question is that whether they are interchangeable or not?

Yes, they are (in this case).

A sonnet is a lyric poem consisting of a single stanza of fourteen iambic pentameter lines ...

A sonnet is a lyric poem that consists of a single stanza of fourteen iambic pentameter lines ...

A sonnet is a lyric poem which consists of a single stanza of fourteen iambic pentameter lines ...

What you are essentially doing here is expanding the participle phrase (-ing, -ed) into a relative clause (that, which, who). You could also do the opposite: reduce the relative clause into a participle phrase. Participle phrases use fewer words to say the same thing or provide the same information as a relative clause.

If space is limited or there is a word limit (e.g., in a newspaper article) a participle phrase may be preferred. There is also the matter of style and choice. Besides those, I can't think of any other reason why one would be preferred over the other.

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