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I don't have Instagram installed on my phone.

Does it mean the same as

I haven't installed Instagram on my phone.

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I don't have Instagram installed on my phone.

is a present-tense sentence. [Don't] have is the main verb. Installed is an adjective, and the adjectival phrase installed on my phone modifies Instagram. "What don't I have? Instagram installed on my phone."

I haven't installed Instagram on my phone.

is a sentence in the present perfect. Installed is the a participle, part of the perfect verb phrase haven't installed. On my phone is a complement of the verb installed. "What haven't I installed? Instagram. Where haven't I installed it? On my phone".

The meanings are related, but certainly not the same. If the first is true, then the second is probably true, but not necessarily: maybe I installed it once and then deleted it. (You'd normally use the simple past for that case; I didn't install Instagram on my phone; but not necessarily. Perfect tenses can be tricky with negative verbs).

Conversely, the first could be false without the second being false: if the phone came bundled with Instagram, or if somebody else installed it before selling the phone to me, then it will be true that I haven't installed Instagram on my phone, but not that I don't have Instagram installed on my phone.

Historically, sentences of the first type were the origin of sentences of the second type; but they parted company several centuries ago.

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