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What is the part of of speech of "done" in the sentence below. I think it was "are being done" but we've just contracted it. I want to know why and how I can make such sentences.

"Robots will be doing many of the jobs currently done by humans."

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'Done' is an adjective that indicates either the completion of an event, or ongoing progress toward the completion of an event.

"jobs done by _____" : the noun in the blank position is acting to do the work of the jobs; he/she/it is the worker. ("jobs done by humans")

"jobs done with ____" : the noun in the blank position describes either a person or thing that facilitates the work ("jobs done with steel"), or that is a characteristic of the completed work ("jobs done with joy").

"jobs done over ____" : the noun in the blank position describes a time period in which the job is completed ("jobs done over Christmas break").

...and other prepositional phrases are possible as well.

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You're right that the sentence can be obtained from which are currently done, by Whiz deletion

The shorter form cannot distinguish between which are currently done and which are currently being done: it might mean either.

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