I am doubting if this question is correctly written.
10 to the power of what the number results in 100?
If this were not a valid question, how would I have to ask it?
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An English-speaking mathematician would probably say this instead:
What is the logarithm (base 10) of 100?
This is usually written "log10 100" in mathematical typography.
If you really don't want to use the word "logarithm," you could ask:
- 10 to the power of what number equals 100? (Note there is no article before "number, and "equals" is more idiomatic than "results in.")
- To what power do you have to raise 10 to get 100?