In Russian, there's a word 'благоустройство'. I'll give you its official definition (I kinda google-translated it but why not, it will do): "A set of works (on the engineering preparation of the territory, the construction of roads, the development of communication networks and water supply, sewage, energy supply, etc.) and measures (on clearing, draining and landscaping the territory, improving the microclimate, and protecting the air basin, open water bodies and soil from pollution, sanitary cleaning, noise reduction, etc.) carried out in order to bring a territory into a condition suitable for construction and normal use for its intended purpose, creating healthy, convenient and cultural conditions of the population." I would add that the word, uncountable, can refer not only to the process but also to its physical results (paving, trees, decorations, etc.). How could the term be rendered into English?
The general term for such type of projects is public works.
Public works are a broad category of infrastructure projects, financed and constructed by the government, for recreational, employment, and health and safety uses in the greater community. They include public buildings (municipal buildings, schools, hospitals), transport infrastructure (roads, railroads, bridges, pipelines, canals, ports, airports), public spaces (public squares, parks, beaches), public services (water supply and treatment, sewage treatment, electrical grid, dams), and other, usually long-term, physical assets and facilities. Though often interchangeable with public infrastructure and public capital, public works does not necessarily carry an economic component, thereby being a broader term.
Public works is a multi-dimensional concept in economics and politics, touching on multiple arenas including: recreation (parks, beaches), aesthetics (trees, green space), economy (goods and people movement, energy), law (police and courts), and neighborhood (community centers, social services buildings). Essentially, it represents any constructed object that augments a nation's physical infrastructure.
Most cities, at least in North America, have a Department of Public Works at the municipal level of government.
We don't have one word for the activity and the activity's results.
The result is infrastructure.
1 : the system of public works of a country, state, or region
also : the resources (such as personnel, buildings, or equipment) required for an activity
Infra- means "below;" so the infrastructure is the "underlying structure" of a country and its economy, the fixed installations that it needs in order to function. These include roads, bridges, dams, the water and sewer systems, railways and subways, airports, and harbors. These are generally government-built and publicly owned. Some people also speak about such things as the intellectual infrastructure or the infrastructure of science research, but the meaning of such notions can be extremely vague.
The activity would be infrastructure development.