Can I use "when did this bridge build" instead of "when this bridge was built" (I think simple past tense is not possible without passive form)
Can I use "when did this bridge build" instead of "when this bridge was built"?
No, "when did this bridge build" is neither grammatical nor idiomatic. And the other version, "when this bridge was built", is not syntactically correct if it is meant to be a question.
If you are asking someone for the date when something was built, you say something like this:
When was this bridge built? When did they build this house? When was the Great Wall of China built?
You can use your second version like this:
It was in 1991 when this bridge was built. When this bridge was built, I was sixteen.
I am not sure what you mean by
I think simple past tense is not possible without passive form
This is fine: The Harper government built this bridge in 2008.
The passive construction would be this: This bridge was built by the Harper government in 2008.
It's not about past tense, it's whether the verb can be used intransitively.
I'm trying to find a clear rule for when "build" can be intransitive, and I'm not sure I can explain where the cutoff is.
Tension builds, excitement builds, ocean waves build: these are idiomatic to the point of cliché.
Can a pile of rocks build? Wow, that pile is building, it's taller every day. When did it build to that height? I would consider it pedantry to say, "It's not building, someone is building it".
But bridges and buildings don't build; they get built. Why can a pile of rocks build when a building can't? Somehow when a thing takes a complex form, rather than just amassing substance, we don't use "build" intransitively. We need an agent.