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I have noticed the shape of dividend, augend, mimuend.
Is end the old-fashioned past participle as en in taken?

I looked it up in Oxford Orgin

late 15th cent. (in the general sense ‘portion, share’): from Anglo-Norman French dividende, from Latin dividendum ‘something to be divided’, from the verb dividere ‘force apart, remove’.

Which does not state it very clearly.

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No, it is a Latin suffix, formed from a Latin gerund. You can see the more complete suffix in words like "referendum". In the transfer through French, the -endum has become -end.

It might be worth noting that "dividend" is not a common word (meaning a share of the profits), and "augend" or "minuend" are exceedingly rare, even in mathematical usage.

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