"Calling a taxi" would sound more like you are talking directly to the taxi, or hailing one in the street. "Calling for a taxi" could mean that you are calling a phone number to speak to someone about arranging a taxi, so it's what you'd want to use here.
You would use "from", as if you just say "here", there is a certain ambiguity, where "here" could represent either the starting point or the destination.
So it would be:
Is calling for a taxi the only way to take a taxi from here?
The above sounds a bit odd/abstract though; some more direct and descriptive alternatives would be (this might be a bit colloquial as it's just how I would likely say this, but the point is that we are specifying the alternative to calling for a taxi):
Are there taxis around here or will I need to call for one?
Is there a taxi rank nearby or will I need to call for one?