While both expressions are idiomatic, call a taxi is far more common, as illustrated in the Google Books Ngram Viewer below.
The expression call for is generally used in the sense of required. To say that this calls for a taxi means that a taxi will be required - as opposed to a bus or a bicycle for example.
If you needed to make a phone call to get a taxi, you might also say: I need to call for a taxi, meaning to make a call for a taxi. But the use of for is optional here.
Note that your sentence is repetitive and awkward: People would not say: Is calling a taxi is the only way to take a taxi here?. Rather just: Do we need/have to call a taxi (here)? Or, Should we call a taxi (here)?
The use of from here implies from this point, as though you have walked a certain distance and now require a taxi to continue your journey. Just here simply means to your location.