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a) If you did not study hard, you would not pass the exam.

b) If you studied hard, you would pass the exam.

b) If I had time, I would visit him.

c) if you helped me, I would finish the work early.

My question here is without context, is it possible to determine that above sentences are used for present or future conditional? Or same can be used for all tenses?

  • would is always iffy. – Lambie Jan 19 at 22:58
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A conditional sentence can use the future tense in the second clause:

  • If you study hard, you will pass the exam.

  • If I have time, I will visit him.

This is called by teachers, a conditional sentence, type 1 used for future, real situations or facts.

Teachers usually teach present unreal or future conditionals as given in the OP's examples:

  • If you didn't study hard, you wouldn't pass the exam.
  • If you studied hard, you would pass the exam.

etc. All the OP's examples are unreal future conditionals.

[Please note,this is a basic introduction, not an academic answer, aimed at helping the OP grasp the simple facts about conditionals.]

Here is an easy chart from an ESL site 1

Easy chart

Please note: there are also mixed conditionals but I am not addressing those here.
Summary: use present after IF and future in the second clause for "real" situations. Use simple past after IF and would + the bare verb in the second clause for "unreal" or imagined situations.

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The examples above can be both future unreal conditional and present unreal conditional. Without context, they cannot be distinguished as one or the other.

https://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/grammar/conditional_special.htm

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Is it possible to determine that above sentences are used for present or future conditional?

Yes, it is possible. The Present Conditionals sentences are built according to the syntactic structure as follows:

  • If / When simple present (subordinate clause), simple present (main clause)]
  • [simple present (main clause) if / when simple present (subordinate clause)] .

In some grammars such a Conditional is called Conditional Zero.

The Future Conditionals sentences are built according the syntactic structure as follows:

  • If / When ( simple present) (subordinate clause), simple future (main clause)]
  • [simple future (main clause) if / when simple present (subordinate clause)] .

In some grammars such a Conditional is called Conditional One.

So, in order not to go into a semantical analyses of the Subjunctive Mood in sentences of unreal conditional, we can conclude in accordance with the syntactic attributes that your examples are not used for the Present and Future Conditionals.

As for as your question ' Or same can be used for all tenses?' is concerned. Because you have mentioned the grammatical term 'tenses', we can understand it as a question about the so called real conditional sentence (Conditional Zero, Conditional One). The answer is that the modern usage tends to use sometimes the Present Continuous tense, the Present Perfect tense in the place of – if clause in Conditional One; Imperative construction to replace either clause in Conditional One, and clauses with Modals in the place of the main clause of Conditional One.

Some grammars use the terms 'unreal conditional present' and 'future unreal conditional'. Other grammars call it as Second conditionals. Second conditional if + past subjunctive | would + infinitive (simple or continuous). Second conditional can describe an unreal situation with reference to the present or to the future. We imagine a hypothetical situation which contrasts with reality: If I knew the answer, I' d tell you. Here If I knew the answer means that I don't know the answer. These sentences refer to things that would happen in the future or present time if something else happened.

Your question has to be formulated in other way as follows: is it possible that the sentences can be used for expressing hypothetical ideas, which might refer either to present or future possible but unlikely situations? Or, the same grammar construction of Conditional Second is for both, hypothetical present and future situations? Is it possible to understand whether the construction is used for referring to present or future, if we assess the grammar of the construction only, while not taking into account the lexical meaning of the words used and general context in which a sentence is? A simple answer is that: No, it is not possible in case of Conditional Second. We cannot determine it without overall context and assessing lexical meanings of the words used in the sentences.

For example:

  • John is going to pass the math exam next week.His relative asks you how you consider the future result of the examination. You answer: ' If he didn't study hard, he wouldn't pass it.' ( the reference to future hypothetical situation, which is obvious, because of the first sentence that is in Indicative mood).

  • John is in the math test now. Your friend asks you about your expectations in relation to John's test. You answer him: 'If he didn't study hard, he wouldn't pass it' (the meaning of the sentence has changed though its structure and wording haven't. The sentence refers to some unreal hypothetical situation of present.

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  • If / When ... simple present ..., ... simple present ...] [... simple present ... if / when ... simple present ...]. **is not even understandable, frankly. – Lambie Jan 19 at 19:50
  • ) There are exp!anations nearby. These were just the grammatical structures of Conditional Zero and Conditional One. – kngram Jan 19 at 19:57

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