The phrase "have been being introduced" confuses me. It seems to indicate that, at one point, the courses were being introduced. But it does not say that they finished being introduced. It does not say the introduction was completed, or that it ended. Nor does it say that the introduction was never cancelled.
Or, to draw a picture: It seems to say that something got to point B in the diagram, without saying whether it ever got to point C or D.
This form is very awkward. If that's what you really want to say, then you should say something like this:
There were several courses that were in the process of introduction.
Then the next sentence could be something that explains the eventual fate of those courses.
In contrast, the phrase "have been introduced" indicates that the courses were introduced and the introduction finished. That is, it says the courses got to point C in the diagram. So, I presume that the second version is what you probably want.
In the second pair, the actor is the government. And so you want some such thing as "this government has introduced a new pedestrian rule." Or, if you really do want the passive form for the pedestrian rule, you might say "under this government, a new pedestrian rule has been introduced." Or, as before, if you really do want to say that the rule got to the introduction stage but not past it, then something like this. "Under this government, a pedestrian rule was in the process of introduction." Then the next sentence could explain the fate of that rule.