Are the colors noun or adjective ? I mean when I say sentence below , Should I use a noun after “red” ?
1)I need red of this shirt .
2)I need red one of this shirt.
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Colours are both noun and adjective:
Adjective: I like the red shirt.
Noun: I like red.
However, that doesn't really help your example, for two reasons. The main one is that it is not quite clear what you mean. I'm guessing that you mean "a shirt just like this, but in red", or "an red example of this kind of shirt". We wouldn't say that as "a red [one] or this shirt". So, no neither of those is either grammatical or clearly meaningful; and if you emend them to:
I need a red one of this shirt.
it is grammatical, and just about comprehensible, but needs the hearer to guess at the meaning.
I think the most natural way of saying this is:
I need this shirt, but in red.
Secondly, I think you are trying to use red as a noun, to mean "the red thing" (in this case, a shirt). We don't usually do that, except in the limited case that we are already talking about several things of different colours, and we are identify a particular colour. Thus:
I'm not sure which of these shirts I like most; perhaps the red.
But we don't use it in a more general context, so a red is very unlikely.