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My book has this form for this sentence Chemicals are washed away by rain and flood, getting mixed with water. and also Chemicals are washed away by rain and flood, to get mixed with water. But I wrote Chemicals are washed away by rain and flood get mixed with water. It will be very helpful if someone explain why one is incorrect and the others are correct.

This is a text book sentence which has When rain and flood wash away chemicals, it gets mixed with water.(make is simple)

  • None of the three are really correct or idiomatic. As usual, context is key. What is this book and what is it trying to say? – TypeIA Jan 24 at 15:30
  • This is my text book which has the cimplex form of that sentence and wants to change it into simple. – Ghost Jan 24 at 15:32
  • My book and my textbook, which is it?? – Lambie Jan 24 at 23:48
  • Textbook."Young learner's communicative English." – Ghost Jan 24 at 23:54
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    This sentence is wrong/unusual on many levels. It is not idiomatic to use “flood” to refer to water directly. We more often think of a “flood” as an event. The waters that result from the “flood” are called “flood waters” and this is what might be washing away chemicals. So, if this was a real sentence in a real book I’d expect it to say, “Chemicals are mixed with water when they are washed away by rain and flood waters.” – Orbital Aussie Jan 25 at 1:51
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Both forms in your text are grammatical although the second is poorly punctuated and not very idiomatic.

The first form

Chemicals are washed away by rain and flood, [thereby] mixing chemicals with water

is quite idiomatic, with or without the ellipsis.

Chemicals are washed away by rain and flood to mix chemicals with water

is grammatical but not idiomatic because it is likely to be read as

Chemicals are washed away by rain and flood [in order] to mix chemicals with water

which is not the intended meaning.

Your sentence is not grammatical because it has two verbs. It could be made grammatical as

Chemicals are washed away by rain and flood and [thereby] get mixed with water

or

Chemicals that are washed away by rain and flood get mixed with water

Some ways that I would simplify the given sentence are:

Chemicals that are washed away by rain and flood mix with the water

Chemicals that are washed away by rain and flood dissolve in the water

Chemicals that are washed away by rain and flood contaminate the water

You could also use a participial phrase as an ellipsis for the clause in the passive, e.g.

Chemicals washed away by rain and flood mix with the water

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