The difference is they aren't all correct.
"Last night" is idiomatic and correct in your example. It means the night that has just passed. "The night" broadly means the time that most people sleep - beginning in the late hours of the previous day and ending the next morning.
We don't say "this night". We say "tonight" to mean the upcoming night. The night that has passed is always "last night".
Neither do we say "this past night". You might be confusing it with the phrase "these past nights", which idiomatically means an indeterminate number of recent nights. It is like saying "recently". We don't say it about just one night.