# Can we use 'Because' with 'Although'

I have this statement in my writing.

Although the result is an incomplete graph representation, the study has taken that option because a single relationship often enhances computational efficiency in resolving ambiguities.

Now, I am confused whether although and because both can put in a one construction... So, please comments on my construction.

• I guess that the rule (or advice) "although and but are not used together" might confuse you. I believe that Although [...], [...] because [...] is fine. (I'm not sure about many of your technical terms, such as "graph representation", "single relationship", etc.) However, if you think that it might confuse your reader, you could try splitting it in two sentences, e.g. Although [...], [...]. That is because [...]. Commented May 18, 2014 at 15:44

Your statement looks fine to me, although I have corrected a few unrelated grammatical errors because it helps to make the question clearer. :)

Although in this case is suggesting that an exception to a rule has been made. Here, the implied rule is that a graph representation is expected to be a complete one. It's perfectly reasonable to use because in the clause that explains why the exception has been made. Here's another example, using the recent Kentucky Derby result:

Although California Chrome won without a particularly fast time, this was because Espinoza eased him up at the end to save him for the Preakness.

The "rule" is that you want to run at a time comparable to the other great horses. The exception is that he was running fast enough to win and had another race to run soon.

Let's rephrase it into something that will give the meaning more clearly.

The study has taken that option because a single relationship often enhances computational efficiency in resolving ambiguities, although the result is an incomplete graph representation.

You're weighing positive and negative factors, to make a decision.

decision because positives, although negatives.

Now, English allows a lot of flexibility, so you can reshuffle these freely.

Because a single relationship often enhances computational efficiency in resolving ambiguities, the study has taken that option, although the result is an incomplete graph representation.

Although the result is an incomplete graph representation, because a single relationship often enhances computational efficiency in resolving ambiguities, the study has taken that option.

The study has taken that option, although the result is an incomplete graph representation, because a single relationship often enhances computational efficiency in resolving ambiguities.

It's best to keep the positives before the negatives though - in the latter two examples the reader may wrongly conclude the 'because' is continuation of the 'although' clause, strengthening it instead of opposing it ('the incomplete representation being a result of the enhanced computational efficiency...'). Still, it's all grammatically correct.