I study Gerund and Participle. Here’s a sentence in my textbook:
Can you hear Sam singing?
What is the part of speech of "Singing"?
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The distinction between the gerund and present participle is no longer relevant. Quirk et al. (1985) and Huddleston & Pullum (2002) both reject it:
We conclude that there is no difference of form, function, or interpretation that correlates systematically with the traditional distinction between 'gerund' and 'present participle'. The distinction introduces an unmotivated complication into the grammar: it is one of the features of traditional grammar that should be discarded
Huddleston & Pullum (2002: 1222)
For this reason, Huddleston & Pullum (2002) use a single compound term gerund-participle that covers both traditional categories. The gerund-participle is a verb form. "Singing" here is therefore a verb in the form of gerund-participle.