The difference between verbs, nouns, and adjectives (functions) in English is often not easy to determine because the forms do not often change when the functions of the word changes. In some cases, they do change forms, but not always.
In your examples, "update" is an interesting example. The writer might well have said "has been updated," which means it is a verb. The verb phrase "is updated" could be a verb plus an adjective, but there is an -ed at the end, which tells us that it's a verbal form as perfect participle. We often use perfect participles as adjectives, such as to say, "Windows 3.0 is outdated." But, this could also easily be a passive voice form.
In the example "This is updated in the HRMS," it isn't exactly clear how the forms are being used. You are right to feel confused. My inclination is to say that it is an adjectival use of the verb rather than a passive voice use. The reason I say this is the use of the present tense. If the form were meant to communicate passivity, I pretty sure the writer would have written "It has been updated." To say it is updated" means it has that quality of "updatedness," the same that Windows 3.0 has the quality of "outdatedness." There also is the very real possibility that the bureaucrat who wrote this was writing it at 4:00 PM and that last cup of coffee was losing it's effect and she was doing all she could to keep from collapsing. In this dogged state, she made a typo.