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I have a sentence: "I lived in the southern city of Kazakhstan, which is surrounded by mountains."

In this sentence, it looks like that is Kazakhstan is surrounded by mountains. However, I wanted to say that is the city is surrounded by mountains.

How to avoid confusion?

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    The simplest way would be to give the name of the city! Feb 17 '20 at 16:14
  • 2
    Does this answer your question? The use or omission of commas round relative clauses Feb 17 '20 at 16:27
  • In practice, your example context is "weird", because the southern city of Kazakhstan implies either that there's only one city in South Kazakhstan, OR that only one city in that region is surrounded by mountains (and I assume neither of those is true). Change it to a rather than the [city], then it's just a matter of whether there's a comma/pause before which or not. If the comma/pause is present, which non-restrictively refers to Kazakhstan being thus surrounded. If not it restrictively references a particular Southern city that's surrounded. Feb 17 '20 at 16:37
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I lived in one of the (south's cities/ the southern cities), which is surrounded by mountains, of Kazakhstan.
it is called "Non-defining relative clauses"

https://www.ef.com/wwen/english-resources/english-grammar/non-defining-relative-clauses/

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