Imagine we are watching 10 pm evening news, the speaker is saying
All students participated in march against smoking in the campus this morning.
All the students participated in march against smoking in the campus this morning.
All of the students participated in march against smoking in the campus this morning.
All of students participated in march against smoking in the campus this morning.
I am pretty sure that the first one and the last one (example#4) are both incorrect, and I'll explain it later, how about the others?
What rules could be applied for these cases? Following part answers some of these questions.
Cambridge Dictionary gives a rule for this situation
When "all" refers to a whole class of people or things, we don’t use "the"
and gives this example
All children love stories. (i.e. every child in the world)
Obviously, the students participated in march are not all the students in the world, example#1 is not appropriate.
I searched the usage of 'all' , 'all the', 'all of the' a bit on ELL.
An ELL post 'all' , 'all the', 'all of the', and 'the whole' talks about the usage, only for time related, such as life, day, time, morning
Another post "All of the ...." or " All the ... "? talks about the usage for "students". The examples at the beginning of this post are adapted from there.
I guess the cases about "time" is different from "students", maybe due to countable or uncountable. But I am not sure and don't have a clear understanding.
All of students
as stated in Swan's PEU (shall we call this determiner rule)
do not use all of if the noun has no determiner
This rule explains why example#4 is incorrect.
A video lesson gives (shall we call this object pronoun rule)
"of" is required when "all" is used with an object pronoun, such as, all of them, all of it, all of us, all of whom
post Why is there "of" here? justifies this rule
There are 2 rules in total, are there other rules for the usage of 'all' , 'all the', 'all of the'?
Please have this post focus on the situations relevant to students or other countable noun plural; the different between "all of the time" and "all the time" please see ("all of the time" vs. "all the time" when referring to situations); other discussion related to time, please take a loot at here.