I am quite confused about how to use, "Here goes” or "Here it goes". For example, what, if anything, is the meaning of the following phrase:
Here goes nothing!
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They're all quite informal phrases, so it's difficult to explain why they mean what they do. They just do!
Taking your main example, I found one online dictionary definition which says the phrase is:
used when one is about to try doing something new, difficult, or unpleasant
That's not bad, but I would add a little more. If someone said to me, "Here goes nothing" I'd assume that whatever it was they were about to try, they did not expect to succeed (or, at very least, they did not want me to expect them to succeed. 🙂)
Note that I changed your original, where you had "Here goes nowhere". However, you did specifically ask if that meant anything, so maybe you did mean "nowhere" after all. If so, then the answer is, no, it doesn't mean anything. Or at least it's not a form of words I've ever seen (and Google seems to agree with me).