No. "short" and "less" cannot be used in place of each other.
One reason for this is that "less" is a relative term (it's comparing the amount of one thing to something else), while "short" is an absolute term (it says that something is not long (or not long enough), without comparing it to anything else), so they don't really serve the same function in a sentence.
Another reason is that "short" almost always only means physical height or length, where "less" means amount or quantity. They're really not measuring the same thing.
You may be thinking of the idiomatic phrase regarding money: "to be (a bit) short" (meaning to have less money than you need for something). This use of "short" really only works when using that particular phrase (or a couple of other related ones), and doesn't work for the adjective "short" in general. Even then, when saying you are "short" to mean you don't have enough money, it strongly implies there is some particular amount that you need (and you need it right now), which you don't have (e.g. "I'm short on rent" meaning "I don't have enough to pay rent (right now)").