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Cambridge dictionary states that "education" can be both a singular noun like "an education" and an uncountable noun like "zero-article education". As far as I know it depends whether the context is general, for example "education" in the following context should be uncountable because it refers to a general meaning.

It's a disgrace that the government spends so much on guns and so little on education. (General meaning and an uncountable form.)

In the following example I guess they used the singular form because there is only one best route, and one child so it is a specific context.

A college education is often the best route to a good job.

I'm very fortunate to have had such a good education. (this is a specific education for one child)

I understand why they used the uncountable form with "full-time education" as it is a general context, but I don't understand why they used the singular form with "a good education"? Both are general and both should be uncountable (i.e. zero-article)

Most children in the UK remain in full-time education until they are at least 16 years old.

It's important for children to get a good education.

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    Because the one with an article is referring to a specific instance. A child receives one education. – Weather Vane Mar 20 '20 at 12:20
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"Education" as an uncountable noun is used to refer to the general topic or activity of educating people:

Education is the service which schools provide.

"(An/the) education" as a singular noun refers to a particular person's history of education (that is, the things that they have learned, their personal educational experience, etc):

A good education is an important thing for a child to have.

In general, "an education" is something that is possessed by someone, and is considered "theirs". "Education" is something that happens, or that people do, but it is not generally owned by anyone/anything.

Another way to think about this is that "education" is an action or activity, and "an education" is what you get as a result of that action being performed on some person.

To address your specific examples:

It's a disgrace that the government spends so much on guns and so little on education.

Here the activity of educating people (in general) is being discussed, so it's the uncountable form.

A college education is often the best route to a good job.

This is talking about the results of being educated. If you have a college education (something you can possess), that is a good route to a good job.

I'm very fortunate to have had such a good education.

Again, this is talking about the results, which the speaker can possess ("have"). It is his/her specific education (history) which is being discussed, not the act of educating people in general.

Most children in the UK remain in full-time education until they are at least 16 years old.

Here, being "in education" refers to being in the system or process which is about educating people in general. "Education" is roughly synonymous with "school" or "teaching/learning" here.

It's important for children to get a good education.

Again, this is talking about children obtaining (possessing) the results of being educated.

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