The Briish Council english web site offers this explanation of present perfect:
We use both the present perfect simple (have or has + past participle) and the present perfect continuous (have or has + been + -ing form) to talk about past actions or states which are still connected to the present.
Note the highlighted text. if you ran for the bus, or to work, you probably stopped when you got there, so there is no connection to the present. You would have a connection to the present if you have been running to work every day, and you intend to do so tomorrow as well. In your examples, there is no connection to the the present, so you use simple past (indicating that you probably ran all of the way) or past continuous (indicating that you probably ran at least part, but not all, of the way):
I ran for the bus. - simple past
I was running for the bus. - past continuous
I ran to work. - simple past
I was running to work. - past continuous