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It's shown in OALD that

spend something doing something

spend something in doing something

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary 9th edition © Oxford University Press, 2015

However, I've come across 2 sentences that break those rules

She carries herself erectly, despite having spent the day bent over an ironing board [...]

Millions of students in rural India spend their day bent over their books due to lack of classroom [...]

Why are they bent instead of bending? Are they cases of passive voice? If so, why is passive voice used in those cases ?

  • Are you sure it’s ‘spend’ and not ‘spent’ in the first example? – Fivesideddice Mar 30 at 9:32
  • it's my mistake. I've just edited. – Thanhgiang Mar 30 at 9:59
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Although "bent" is the past tense of "bend", it can also be an adjective because it describes a static position. If you bend (verb) a piece of metal, then it is bent (adjective). It can also be a verb, for example "I have bent the metal".

If you spend the day "bending over" that would mean that you were constantly bending, then standing up straight, then bending over again. That might describe the work of picking things up off the floor.

Your example describes being in one position all day. It isn't an action - it is the position you were in, so here "bent" is an adjective. "Ironing" is the action, but that is only implied by the fact you were bent over an ironing board. If the action was the focus of your statement then you would write "I spent the day ironing whilst bent over".

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