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Exposing individuals' personal data might make them vulnerable to cyber fraud and piracy, which might result in them losing money and put/puts their privacy at risk.

When I write might + verb1, and verb2, should I treat verb2 as if it was preceded with might? and what is this rule called?

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If you use puts, that is a tensed verb, and has to be interpreted as parallel with might:

which [might result in them losing money] and [puts their privacy at risk].

so it is stating that it does put their privacy at risk. This is probably not what you intended.

If you use put, then it is not a tensed verb, so it must be inside the scope of "might":

which might [[result in them losing money] and [put their privacy at risk]]

This distinction only appears in the 3rd person singular ("he/she/it puts"). In any other person, there would be no distinction, and the sentence would be formally ambiguous (eg those things might result in them losing money and put their privacy at risk. ) Only context (and real world knowledge) can then resolve the ambiguity.

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