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whoever has made a voyage up the Hudson must remember the Kaatskill mountains. They are a dismembered branch of the great Appalachian family, and are seen away to the west of the river, swelling up to a noble height, and lording it over the surrounding country. Every change of season, every change of weather, indeed every hour of the day, produces some change in the magical hues and shapes of these mountains, and they are regarded by all the good wives, far and near, as perfect barometers.

I know every word in the bolded phrase, but don't really understand it and can't picture it.

Does it mean like the image below? river on the right, mountains on the left(west) and along the river? enter image description here

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That "away" means that the mountains are distant.
American Heritage Dictionary "away" adj.2

  1. Distant, as in space or time: The city is miles away. The game was still a week away.

The word "away" often appears with another word, as in "miles away", "far away", "well away". Here it is used alone.

They are to the west of the river, but "along the river" sounds as if they are close, but they are not.

For reference, here is a link to the source text "The Legend of Rip Van Winkle":
Project Gutenberg Rip Van Winkle

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