"He thinks I'm an idiot."
"Has he said that?" / "Did he say that?"
Are these interchangeable?
Also, if someone said "He said that?" is that always a short version of "Has he said that?"
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"Has he said that" and "Did he say that" are not interchangeable.
"Did he say that?" is asking if he said something at a specific time in the past. The time could be stated ("Did he say that when you talked to him yesterday?") or it could be implied by the context of the conversation.
"Has he said that?" is asking if he has ever, at any time, said that, without any specific time reference.
"He said that?" is technically short for "Did he say that?" If someone meant, "Has he said that?" they could say, "He's said that?" but there may be very little difference to the ear.