Having come to Kolkata he had found the people were warm.

Can I make the sentence with out had and without changing the meaning. Like this:

Having come to Kolkata he found the people were warm.

  • 2
    I think the perfect is context-dependent. It may be difficult to answer if you don't provide what you're going to say next.
    – user1513
    Jun 1, 2014 at 7:05
  • 3
    @TzD There will be very few contexts where Past Perfect would even be valid in your sentence, and even less where it would required. You normally only need Past Perfect when your narrative is already talking/writing about past events, and you need to refer back to a time even earlier than the "narrative time". But even then people often don't bother. See this earlier answer, and ELL Canonical Post #2 Jun 1, 2014 at 15:10

1 Answer 1


Removing 'had' changes the time the sentence describes. As FumbleFingers says in the comments, 'had' is only used when you are already describing a past event, and want to put this specific sentence further in the past.

Past perfect is usually only used when telling a narrative--either telling someone about a prior event: "We went to the movies last night. He had told me last week how much he was looking forward to the Superman release..."

or in fiction, where it is standard for the entire story to be written in past tense, so telling what happened before the story started requires past perfect.

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