Please, can you explain me when we can use verb +ed like
"you are allowed to..."?
I understand that the main meaning is that you are free to do something but I can't find the definition of this grammar rule.
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The sentence you mentioned is a passive-voice sentence.
You can make such passive-voice sentences with transitive verbs. To form the passive voice sentence, you need to know the past-participle of the intended verb. For many verbs the past participle is given by the pattern you mentioned- verb+ed.