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You and your child are walking on a street and suddenly see a cat eating some meat.

At that moment, both you and your child know what the cat looks like (white fur, etc) and know what the meat looks like (red meat, etc).

I know that the more suitable expression should be "Look! a cat is eating some meat."

But I also wonder if the father and his child could say "Look! The cat is eating the meat." because at the moment of uttering both see the specific cat and meat and what they look like?

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I think you would only use the meat for the very unique circumstance where you had earlier talked about the same specific piece of meat:
- "I wonder what happened to that sausage that was on the table."
- "Oh look! The cat is eating the meat"
- "That's where it went!"

In general, I would not use the:
- "Look! The cat is eating {some, a piece of} meat" or even
- "Look! The cat is eating meat."

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