He is a fortunate person whose all efforts succeed.
He is a fortunate person all of whose efforts succeed.
Which sentence is correct? My grammar book is saying second sentence is correct. But why sentence one is wrong?
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OP's second example (He is a fortunate person all of whose efforts succeed) is fine, but not the first. HOWEVER - if we compare it to a very similar form...
(OP) He is a fortunate person whose all efforts succeed <===NOT ACCEPTABLE
(ME) He is a fortunate person whose every effort succeeds <=== PERFECTLY OKAY
That "okay" link above is to people whose every project succeeds [or goes horribly wrong], but it's the same basic construction - that's to say, Subject's every NP, which is stylised shorthand for emphatic / explicitly-specified each and every one of Subject's NPs.
Note that in contexts where the effort/s is/are being made (as opposed to being "possessed"), the two highlighted terms are effectively equivalent and interchangeable...
I will make all efforts to solve the problem <=== BOTH
I will make every effort to solve the problem <=== FINE
It's not obvious to me why both forms are okay in that second pair, but not the first. Perhaps there is some rational "explanation" for the difference (or at least, a way of describing things so it's easy to remember what works and what doesn't). But my guess it it's just random quirks in how "acceptable" syntax has evolved.