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I've seen these sentences :

There goes the train!

There goes Peter!

Here comes Peter!

But

There he goes!

Here he comes!

Why is there a subject-verb inversion when the subject is not a personal pronoun? Is there any grammatical rule?

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  • They are not subject-verb inversions but a special kind of subject-dependent inversion.
    – BillJ
    May 17 '20 at 13:12
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Subject inversion can happen following "here" and "there", when these words are function as adverbs of place, and the subject isn't a pronoun.

So yes, there is a grammatical rule.

More generally with adverbs of location and not a "weak" pronoun, inversion is possible.

Here's your coffee.

but: Here it is.

On the table lay a book

Round the rugged rock ran the ragged ruffian

Wikipedia has https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subject%E2%80%93verb_inversion_in_English#Locative_inversion and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/V2_word_order

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There goes the train!

There goes Peter!

Here comes Peter!

There he goes!

Here he comes!

Syntactically, these are all subject-dependent inversions.

They are comparable to running commentaries describing a situation that is taking place as they are uttered.

A personal pronoun subject precedes the verb, as the last two show.

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