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Amendmentⅱ

A well-regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.

Is it participial construction? Was "being" in this context originally "As it(militia) is..."?

Or does it a have different meaning? What's the grammatical role of "being" here and how should I interpret the sentence?

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Note that comma usage was a little different when that was written. The modern version would omit the comma after "militia" and the one after "arms":

A well-regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed.

The italicized part is an "absolute phrase/construction", which is independent of the structure of the rest of the sentence. In this example, it establishes a reason for the clause that follows it.

Wikipedia "absolute construction"
There are a few other examples at that link of an absolute construction in English; they all use participial verb forms.

The sentence could be rephrased like this:

The right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed because a well-regulated militia is necessary to the security of a free state.

The verb "to be", which appears as "is" in this rephrasing, occurs in participle form "being" in the absolute construction.

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