As a general rule, you hyphenate words which function together as an adjective before the noun they are describing. This usually involves joining a noun and an adjective, for example, "a dog-friendly hotel". You shouldn't hyphenate words which are already adjectives, for example, "a charming old hotel".
In both of your examples, you are describing medical procedures - a laparoscopic hysterectomy, and a lateral meniscus repair.
"Laparoscopic" is an adjective, describing the approach of the procedure, as is the word "lateral" to describe which of the menisci referred to, so there are no need for hyphens there.
"Robotic" and "assisted" are also both adjectives, so these should not be hyphenated. However, "Robotic" is not an adjective that describes the entire procedure, so there is a problem. It should be "robot-assisted" (assisted by a robot).
However, this may be medical terminology, and terminology does not always follow the rules of English grammar. You should follow whatever terminology is being used by the medical professionals.