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Do the following sentences mean the one after "=" ?

I haven't worked for 20 years = It has been 20 years since I worked last.

I haven't worked for only/just 20 years = I have worked for a period longer than 20 years.

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If the question was "Do these sentences mean the same thing as the ones next to them?" I'd say "yes" with the exception of the last pair, which doesn't pass my eye-test.

First off, I'd prefer to say "I have worked [for] more/longer than 20 years." It doesn't mean the same thing as "I haven't worked for only/just 20 years." This sentence seems a tad awkward. I wouldn't expect anyone to say they haven't worked for just 20 years expect in jest or they mean to be ironic. But the sentence is totally fine and obviously it does not express the same thing as the former.

Also, a part of your second sentence doesn't sound quite common to me. I'd say, "since I last worked." The position of "last" is a bit unusual but not unheard of.

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The first row is correct. I haven't worked for 20 years means the same as It has been 20 years since I worked last. However the first part of the second row is incorrect. We don't use I haven't worked for only/just 20 years to mean I have worked for a period longer than 20 years. Instead you can say: I have worked for more than 20 years.

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