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From wikipedia

President Donald Trump in 2018 began setting tariffs and other trade barriers on China with the goal of forcing it to make changes to what the U.S. says are "unfair trade practices". Among those trade practices and their effects are the growing trade deficit, the theft of intellectual property, and the forced transfer of American technology to China.

Could I interpret the last sentence as Among A and B are C, D and E? In which, A = trade practices, B = their effects, C = the growing trade deficit, D = the theft of intellectual property, E = the forced transfer of American technology to China.

By that, the speaker conveys an idea that A and B cause C, D and E, is my understanding right?

Is it a common and clear expression to suggest that idea?

  • That sentence would convey the idea that A and B include C,D and E. – Cardinal Jun 7 at 6:50
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Could I interpret the last sentence as "Among A and B are C, D and E?" In which, A = trade practices, B = their effects, C = the growing trade deficit, D = the theft of intellectual property, E = the forced transfer of American technology to China.

The above is correct. However, the following is not:

By that, the speaker conveys an idea that A and B cause C, D and E. ❌

Basically, what the article is saying is that [the "unfair trade practices" and their effects] include ["the growing trade deficit, the theft of intellectual property, and the forced transfer of ..."].

You can write this down as a list if that helps you to understand it:

[the "unfair trade practices" and their effects] include

  • the growing trade deficit
  • the theft of intellectual property
  • the forced transfer of American technology to China

Compare that sentence with this:

Among your [duties as a coach] are [holding regular practice sessions, ensuring players maintain satisfactory grades, and reporting any serious offenses to the athletic committee.]

You can re-write this as a list:

Your [duties as a coach] include

  • holding regular practice sessions
  • ensuring players maintain satisfactory grades
  • reporting any serious offenses to the athletic committee.

These are the duties you have to perform as a coach. It is incorrect and nonsensical to say that

[duties as a coach] cause [holding ..., ensuring ..., and reporting ...] ❌


In your case, A and B are very closely related, and I wouldn't think of them as distinct aspects of trade.

Here, "unfair trade practices" include

  • the theft of intellectual property
  • the forced transfer of American technology to China

And the "effects" of "unfair trade practices" include

  • the growing trade deficit
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