From the Cambridge Dictionary

This drug may have the effect of speeding up your heart rate.

I guess it means that the drug results in speeding up heart rate.

The medicine had the effect of making me sleepy.

Similarly, the medicine results in user sleepy.

Both of them use a pattern like A has the effect of X, where A represents the reason/cause and X represents the result.

However, this one seems more complicated.

The effect of the redundancies on morale has been extremely damaging

the pattern becomes A has the effect of X on Y and A is omitted, is my understanding correct?

  • The redundancies have had the effect of damaging morale. So A is 'the redundancies'. Jun 14 '20 at 8:14
  • @KateBunting Thank you. That's another reason I ask the OP. Is the thing right after "effect of" the result or the cause? Perhaps, X is the result of A and the cause of Y at the same time, is my understanding correct?
    – PutBere
    Jun 14 '20 at 8:29
  • In this sentence, the thing after effect is the cause. 'The effect of A on morale has been X' (or you could say that X is 'damage to morale'). Jun 14 '20 at 8:48
  • @KateBunting I guess "extremely damaging" is not X, as X is some kind of a thing. In contrast, "extremely damaging" is an adjective to describe the extent of that effect.
    – PutBere
    Jun 14 '20 at 10:34

Redundancy = A Damaged moral = X

So, following the syntax of your example, we can say that The effect of A has been X

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