To get a bead on
I haven't read the play, but within the given context it seems to be meant figuratively. Alternatively "to draw a bead on", the idiom means to take aim with a gun (literally), and figuratively to simply focus on something. In this case it could be taken to mean "Have you finally become focused on the task/undertaking at hand?"
EDIT: James K has a different interpretation, which I'm inclined to agree with:
"draw a bead on" seems to be mostly american. I'd guess this expression refers to "beads of sweat". I.e. "Have you come to do some hard work and get sweaty?" spoken rather ironically (implying that the clergy don't do any real work)
I'm a ways past bailing.
This is a combination of "a ways", more commonly used in the form noted in the definition, and "past" (prep.), meaning that the character has long since passed the point of "bailing" (verb, intransitive). In other words, he is not quitting now, as it is too late.
To pull a muscle
A common idiom, "pulling a muscle" means to receive an injury due to overexertion of the muscles. It is most likely meant figuratively here, and could also be expressed as "it is never too late to work hard."