None of them are correct.
First, it should start
It has a pernicious effect on
It has pernicious effects on
Effort 1 is close to being correct:
on human beings' lifestyles
on a human being's lifestyle
are correct though they mean different things and are both stylistic monstrosities.
Effort 2 is also close to being correct:
on human lifestyles
on a human lifestyle
are fine though they mean different things.
Effort 3 is further from being correct. You could try to correct it with
the lifestyles of human beings
but that implies that all human beings live their lives in an identical way, which you probably do not mean to imply. It is grammatically correct to say
the lifestyle of a human being
but that robs the statement of all force. Does anyone care whether something has a pernicious effect on the lifestyle of a serial murderer?
In short, articles have meaning in English as does the choice between singular and plural. I cannot tell you what is correct because I have no idea what you are trying to say. Are we talking about one person and that one person's specific lifestyle, or all persons and their uniform lifestyle, or all lifestyles? Is "human lifestyle" prescriptive or descriptive? The answer to the preceding questions will determine what is correct. Grammar is the servant of meaning. Frequently, when you think you have a question in grammar, what you really have is a question on what you really want to say.