Is it correct to say "So, you want to jump down from up here/there" as shown in the picture?
Under a traditional analysis, we would regard "down" as a preposition when it has an object, and usually as an adverb when it doesn't. That is to say, it was called an adverb in the phrase "go down", but a preposition in the phrase "go down the hill".
Under a more modern analysis, we can regard "down" as a preposition even when it doesn't have an object. Instead of sometimes calling it a preposition, sometimes an adverb, and maybe sometimes a particle or something else, we can simply say that sometimes it is a transitive preposition, and sometimes an intransitive preposition. It's a preposition that works with or without an object.
From that perspective, "down", "from", "up", and "there" are all prepositions. The preposition "from" is strictly transitive, the preposition "there" is strictly intransitive, and the prepositions "up" and "down" can be either.
We can regard "jump down from up there" as a structure with prepositional phrases inside other prepositional phrases.
The phrase "jump down" works.
The phrase "jump there" works.
The phrase "jump down there" works.
The phrase "jump from there" works.
The phrase "jump down from there" works.
The phrases "jump up" and "jump up there" work.
The phrase "jump down from up there" works.
Different frameworks yield different analyses of these phrases. There might be no clear and simple answer to which embedded phrases are acting as arguments and which as adjuncts.
What is clear is that not every possible combination works.
The phrase "jump down from" fails. We can explain this failure by saying that "from" does not work as an intransitive preposition. A required argument is missing.
The phrase "jump from up" fails. This failure is harder to explain. The "up" can work as an intransitive preposition. The preposition "from" can take an intransitive preposition as its argument.
The problem here is that "from" needs something like a location as its argument. The phrase "from there" works because "there" is locative. The phrase "up here" represents a location, but the intransitive "up" merely represents a direction. On its own, it doesn't make a suitable argument for "from".