In order to reduce an adverbial clause, it must have the same subject as the independent clause.
'Although gamblers being the most prone to this' does not work grammatically here because it does not describe 'it': the two clauses have different subjects.
Here's an example where you can reduce the adverbial clause:
Though I was hungry, I didn't eat lunch.
Though hungry, I didn't eat lunch.
In this case, the subject of both clauses is "I" so you can reduce one. However, in your example:
Although gamblers are the most prone to this, it equally applies to
business during bubbles and to people who gain sudden attention from
The subject of the first clause is gamblers. The second is it.
Therefore, this is not grammatically correct.