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Hence the need for a providential Prometheus with a “why not?”

What does hence mean in the context? There is a usage of it with 'with'?

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A more complete quotation makes it clearer:

Google Books Bloch "The Privatization of Hope"

Crucially, the text implicitly responds to Bacon’s claim, in the Prometheus chapter, that “to derive mind and reason from principles brutal and irrational would be harsh and incredible.” Hence the need for a providential Prometheus with a “why not?” A materialist explanation is at least as plausible as supernatural design: “The beginning of motion in matter itself is as conceivable a priori as its communication from mind and intelligence.

The sentence says that Hume proposes an answer to Bacon's claim, cited in the previous sentence, that mind and reason can't have arisen from the brutal and irrational.

Bloch says that Hume proposes a Prometheus, a god credited with providing the light of reason to humanity, that can be taken as an answer "Why not?", that is, why can't reason have arisen from the brutal and irrational?

The next sentence continues to clarify the idea: "A materialist explanation is at least as plausible as supernatural design."

Regarding the particular words that you asked about, the word "hence" means almost the same as "therefore". It means that Bacon's reasoning gives rise to the need to propose a being that says "why not?". The word "with" in the sentence simply means that proposing a Prometheus, in the sense he means, is the act of posing that question.

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