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Seldom is the weather more dramatic than when thunderstorms strike.

Is it an inverted sentence? Or what is it?

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Seldom is the weather more dramatic than when thunderstorms strike.

Your example has subject-auxiliary inversion. This occurs in declarative clauses only when certain types of element are put in front position.

Negatives are one very obvious type of element that trigger subject-auxiliary inversion when fronted.

Never had I seen such chaos. / At no stage were they in danger.

"Seldom" is classified as an 'approximate negator', hence the inversion. Compare the basic ordering, without fronting:

The weather is seldom more dramatic than when thunderstorms strike.

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An inverted sentence switches the placement of the verb before the subject of a sentence as if in a question (ie "Is the weather more dramatic than when thunderstorms strike?")

So yes, it is inverted. It could also be written as:

The weather is seldom more dramatic than when thunderstorms strike.

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