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The issue is that we don't know how many people have been registered to the site, and how many people are actually real people.

which is the same as

The issue is that we don't know how many people are actually real people, and how many people have been registered to the site.

Do we put a comma before and? Most people would be tempted to not use a comma before and, but I am not sure if it's 100% necessary.

Another example:

If this is true, then it is almost certain that people will respond to the government's action with violence, and the government will escalate things to a boiling point where a widespread civil war wouldn't be completely out of the picture in the coming weeks.

which is the same as:

If this is true, then it is almost certain that the government will escalate things to a boiling point where a widespread civil war wouldn't be completely out of the picture in the coming weeks, and people will respond to the government's action with violence.

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In your first example, I think the conjunction "or" would fit better, or even "nor". That said, I think it should have a comma, because the two clauses it separates are coordinate with each other, though they are subordinate to the main clause.

In your second example, I think your paraphrase is not really the same as the original, because it changes the sequencing and emphasis established by the author. I don't find any fault with the comma use in the original example.

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