Gordon Ramsay attempts to make fish and chips in ten minutes
Why is “in” used here instead of “for”?
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One meaning that hasn't been mentioned so far is using "in" to refer to an action which will begin in the future. If someone says "I will make dinner in 10 minutes" they are usually (in my experience) expressing that they will start to make dinner 10 minutes from now. With this interpretation, the sentence says nothing about the duration of the act of making dinner.
Another valid interpretation of that sentence would be that the act of making dinner will be completed in 10 minutes. In that case the sentence gives no indication when I will start making dinner, just that it will take 10 minutes. I'd argue that my first interpretation - that I will start 10 minutes from now - is far more common, at least in Canadian English.
Which meaning is intended is usually (for a native speaker) apparent from context. If someone says "We will be planting tomatoes on Mars in 100 years" they're probably not expressing the idea that we will be spending the next 100 years planting tomatoes on Mars. Although that would make a lot of ketchup.
"Gordon Ramsay attempts to make fish and chips for ten minutes" would mean you are promised to see footage which is exactly 10 minutes long showing Gordon Ramsay performing the task of making fish and chips. But it does not guarantee that it shows the whole process. The footage might start in the middle of the process. The 10 minutes might end before he is finished. He might even be finished after 8 minutes and then start another batch in order to complete the promised 10 minutes of labor. A possible failure condition for this attempt would be if Ramsay would become exhausted or bored before the 10 minutes are completed and just quit.
"Gordon Ramsay attempts to make fish and chips in ten minutes" , on the other hand, promises that you are going to see the whole process from start to finish in 10 minutes or less. A possible failure condition for this attempt would be if Ramsay would be unable to complete the whole process within the 10 minute time limit.