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you said it! (from Longman dictionary)
used when someone says something that you agree with, although you would not have actually said it yourself because it is not polite

Just today, I learned this expression. I didn't know up until today that it meant an agreement, but my question here is the reason why it means an agreement while its variation "you said that!" doesn't? What's the logic, if any?

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There are two versions of "You said it!"

One version idiomatically means "You said all that can be said on that subject." It expresses emphatic agreement -- the original speaker has covered everything you could have wanted to say. In this usage, there is no implication of impropriety.

Example:

"We haven't eaten in hours! I'm starving."

"You said it. Let's stop for pancakes in the next town."

The other version is an abbreviation of "You said it, not me", which does suggest that the comment would have been rude if you'd said it, and may not be a particularly emphatic agreement. For example, if your friend says, "Oh, I am such a fool!", you might respond, "You said it, not me." This expresses that you agree, but you weren't going to call him a fool to his face, and technically you still haven't -- you just agreed that he called himself a fool.

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There is a bit of logic here. The pronoun "that" refers back to the thing that was spoken, so "You said that!" literally means "You said the thing that you said!" This is a simple tautology, not a statement of agreement.

The pronoun "it", however, refers to something else - in this case it's understood to mean "the thing (or idea) that is true," so the phrase "You said it!" is a statement of agreement.

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