Unfortunately, memorisation is probably the best method.
While you can probably create some sort of explanation in some cases, the derivations are probably so obscure as to be inobvious.
The meaning of "Have to" is understood by a native English speaker with no mental association with the possesive "have".
"Would like" may have some logical etymological link to "would" but it too would not be in any way in mind by a typical speaker.
So, memorising our strange constructs is probably your only sensible choice :-(.
A few semi random examples:
Have to - Must
Would like - Want, desire. Also 'Would like to have'
"... up" - Up usually indicates elevation in height, but adding as an adverb indicates an increase in rate or condition.
Do up - renovate, improve.
Make up - 1. Apply cosmetics = improve appearance 2. Create a false statement or story.
Eat up - Eat, with an emphasis on completion or speed.
Eat up your food" = Eat your food (rapidly, completely).
Fed up = very annoyed,
" ... out" -> completely, maximally
- Tired out = very tired, completely tired.
- Worn out = completely worn or used up. No capability remaining
"get out of bed" - - leave a bed.
- out = not IN bed,
get = acquire a state of, so
"acquire a state of not being in bed" :-).
"I got out of bed" is usual.
But one would not say "I got out of car"
but would say "I got out of [my | the] car".
"I got out of a car" would only be used in certain cases eg "Last week, as I got out of a car I heard a gunshot"
English can be weird :-) :-(